Monitoring the People

Two Arrangements Under Which National Election Materials are Normally Procured

The procurement of national election materials can be a highly controversial affair. Ultimately, there are two arrangements under which national election materials are normally procured.

The first arrangement under which national election materials are normally procured is that which is referred to as open tendering. This is where the electoral body that needs the polling materials puts out adverts, announcing its requirements, and inviting vendors who are interested in supplying it to bid. The best bidders are then given the tenders to supply the polling materials. This is a transparent way of doing things. Unfortunately, this is a scheme that can be easily infiltrated, hence the need for a lot of caution. In the final analysis, the bid can end up being given not to the lowest bidder, but rather, to the bidder who gets the best clearance from the security agencies.

The second arrangement under which national election materials are normally procured is that which is referred to as government to government procurement. This is where a government that needs election materials gets in touch with another government that hosts companies that are involved in the manufacture of the election materials. The government in need of the election materials then does the procurement of the materials in a closed deal, without inviting interested vendors to also submit their tenders. Needless to say, this is a less than transparent manner of doing things.

Three Ways In Which Corrupt Elites Try to Influence Election Outcomes

Corrupt elites are always keen on influencing election outcomes, because, in many cases, their wealth turns out to be predicated on their ability to hold onto political power (especially if they can influence government behind the scenes, thus giving rise to crony capitalism).

The first way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by using propaganda to promote their preferred candidates: those being candidates they can easily manipulate. Sometimes, through the use of media the ordinary citizens are duped into believing that the elites’ candidates are actually ‘their’ candidates: leading to a situation where some members of the public are actually ready to die for candidates who, in fact, don’t have their best interests at heart.

The second way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by using money to bribe the voters (or to bribe support groups indirectly), so that their preferred candidates win. The elites operate on the maxim that everyone has a price, and that everyone has vulnerabilities that can be exploited to compromise him or her.

The third way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by simply rigging them: when all the other ‘softer’ methods of promoting their preferred candidates fail.

Three Models Under Which Presidential Elections are Held

Presidential elections tend to be highly exciting affairs, especially in countries where presidents have real power (as opposed to countries where presidents only play ceremonial roles). It emerges that there are some three models under which presidential elections are held.

The first model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people vote directly for the president. Under this scheme, the presidential candidate with the highest number of votes becomes the winner and assumes office. To win the presidency under this model, you need to campaign intensely. You have to hold rallies. You have to go for town hall meetings. You even have to campaign online: like where, for instance, you use Gmail texts which are amongst the new www.gmail.com features (assuming that you have a verified Gmail.com account), to communicate with your target political audience.

The second model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people elect delegates, who then go to a convention where they elect the president.

The third model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people elect political parties, and the parties that are victorious then go ahead to form governments – which includes selecting presidents. So, under this scheme, if you want to become a president, you just position yourself strategically in the party, and if the party wins, you become president.

How Political Parties Can Help in Streamlining National Elections

Political parties can play a crucial role in streamlining national elections.

The first way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by carrying out credible nominations. This is important, because what happens at nominations has an impact on the choice voters end up with on the actual elections days: for, with the exception of independent candidates, all other candidates have to be nominated by their parties. So if the parties nominate the wrong people, the voters end up having to make a choice between less-than-perfect candidates.

The second way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by vetting the candidates they plan to sponsor carefully.

The third way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by sponsoring candidates financially. This would entail giving full financial support to the candidates running on their tickets. That is as opposed to letting the candidates campaign with their own resources. Where there is no proper political party sponsorship, what we tend to end up with is a situation where the candidates end up getting sponsorship from rich businesspeople. Then, once they get into power, they champion the causes of those rich businesspeople, rather than the interests of the masses.

Things That Make Elections Chaotic in Certain Nations

There are certain nations in the world where elections tend to be very chaotic. People from the countries that are able to conduct orderly elections often wonder why elections in these other countries become chaotic. That is the question we venture to explore.

It emerges that the first thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is lack of civic education. So we often end up with people who are not properly educated on the workings of democracy being required to take part in democratic processes, often with nasty consequences. Doing so is akin to having a person who is not computer literate being told to make use of an app like, say, the www.gmail.com client for emails or the Gmail.com calendar or even something more complex like the Gmail task manager. Naturally, he is bound to make a mess of it: not because he is not intelligent, but because he is not trained for the task.

The second thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is lack of proper organization.

The third thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is corruption. The forces of corruption tend to be so vicious that they can’t stand the idea of genuine democracy, as they know that such democracy would expose them.

Features of Good Election Observers

It has become standard practice to enlist the help of election observers, who at the end of elections, are expected to give their verdicts on whether or not the elections were ‘free and fair’. Good election observers are expected to have certain characteristics.

Firstly, good election observers are expected to be credible folks.

Secondly, good election observers are expected to be well informed folks. The idea is to avoid a situation where, for instance, an observer sees an agent using his or her laptop to send a www.ymail.com draft (that being what may have previously been created and stored in the drafts Ymail.com folder) only to start suspecting that electoral malpractice is taking place! You need an observer who is able to differentiate between an electronic voting platform (that can indeed be used for rigging) from an innocent Ymail template) that, in this case, would be used by the agents to communicate with their candidates about their prospects.

Thirdly, good election observers are expected to be good communicators.

Finally, good election observers are expected to be neutral.

Things to Focus On When Carrying Out Civic Education Before an Election

You need to focus on certain things when carrying out civic education before an election.

Firstly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the education to understand the factors they should consider when selecting candidates. Otherwise you may have people voting on the basis of how handsome or beautiful the various candidates look, with the end result being the election of very poor candidates.

Secondly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the civic education to understand how to actually take part in the election. You first have to get them to see the need to take part in this sort of exercise. That can be tricky, especially when dealing with struggling people who are specifically involved in a game of daily survival, and who don’t care much about social inclusion through things like the democratic process.

Thirdly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the civic education to understand how to protect their vote. This is the way to prevent electoral malpractices, and it can be very challenging, given the fact that governments often see the need to rig elections for attainment of certain strategic objectives in national interest.

Measures You Can Take to Ensure That a National Election Goes Smoothly

Getting a national election to go smoothly is not easy. There are, nonetheless, certain measures you can take, to – at the very least – enhance chances of that sort of exercise going smoothly.

Firstly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to carry out adequate civic education.

Secondly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to get the political parties to sign up to a code of conduct.

Thirdly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to put in place good systems for every aspect of the exercise: from voter registration to the actual voting and onto vote tallying as well as transmission of the results.

Fourthly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to enlist the help of security agencies. These can help you with intelligence, in case plans to mar the exercise are made in some corner. The security agencies can also help you secure the materials to be used in the exercise, to avoid a situation where goons come and take the ballot boxes or where goons interfere with vote counting. The security agencies can, in a nutshell, help you secure the people conducting the exercise, people taking part in the exercise, and the materials as well as tools used in the exercise.

Four Processes That Affect the Credibility of Any National Democratic Election

Certain processes tend to have a very huge effect on the credibility of any national democratic election.

The first process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the voter registration process. If this is not carried out in a transparent manner, we can end up with parallel registers. Then we can end up with people who are not authorized to vote actually voting. Or we can even end up with ‘ghost voters’ taking part in the exercise!

The second process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the party nomination process. If this is not done in the right way, people are likely to end up with very poor pools of candidates to select from. The nomination process can, however, get very tricky when certain parties get intelligence to suggest that their opponents are trying to infiltrate them (by sponsoring Trojan candidates to stand on their tickets).

The third process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the actual voting process.

The fourth process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the vote tallying process. This is where most problems tend to creep in, leading to the often cited maxim that the people who matter are not those who do the voting, but rather, those who do the counting.

Two Arrangements Under Which National Election Materials are Normally Procured

The procurement of national election materials can be a highly controversial affair. Ultimately, there are two arrangements under which national election materials are normally procured.

The first arrangement under which national election materials are normally procured is that which is referred to as open tendering. This is where the electoral body that needs the polling materials puts out adverts, announcing its requirements, and inviting vendors who are interested in supplying it to bid. The best bidders are then given the tenders to supply the polling materials. This is a transparent way of doing things. Unfortunately, this is a scheme that can be easily infiltrated, hence the need for a lot of caution. In the final analysis, the bid can end up being given not to the lowest bidder, but rather, to the bidder who gets the best clearance from the security agencies.

The second arrangement under which national election materials are normally procured is that which is referred to as government to government procurement. This is where a government that needs election materials gets in touch with another government that hosts companies that are involved in the manufacture of the election materials. The government in need of the election materials then does the procurement of the materials in a closed deal, without inviting interested vendors to also submit their tenders. Needless to say, this is a less than transparent manner of doing things.

Three Ways In Which Corrupt Elites Try to Influence Election Outcomes

Corrupt elites are always keen on influencing election outcomes, because, in many cases, their wealth turns out to be predicated on their ability to hold onto political power (especially if they can influence government behind the scenes, thus giving rise to crony capitalism).

The first way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by using propaganda to promote their preferred candidates: those being candidates they can easily manipulate. Sometimes, through the use of media the ordinary citizens are duped into believing that the elites’ candidates are actually ‘their’ candidates: leading to a situation where some members of the public are actually ready to die for candidates who, in fact, don’t have their best interests at heart.

The second way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by using money to bribe the voters (or to bribe support groups indirectly), so that their preferred candidates win. The elites operate on the maxim that everyone has a price, and that everyone has vulnerabilities that can be exploited to compromise him or her.

The third way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by simply rigging them: when all the other ‘softer’ methods of promoting their preferred candidates fail.

Three Models Under Which Presidential Elections are Held

Presidential elections tend to be highly exciting affairs, especially in countries where presidents have real power (as opposed to countries where presidents only play ceremonial roles). It emerges that there are some three models under which presidential elections are held.

The first model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people vote directly for the president. Under this scheme, the presidential candidate with the highest number of votes becomes the winner and assumes office. To win the presidency under this model, you need to campaign intensely. You have to hold rallies. You have to go for town hall meetings. You even have to campaign online: like where, for instance, you use Gmail texts which are amongst the new www.gmail.com features (assuming that you have a verified Gmail.com account), to communicate with your target political audience.

The second model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people elect delegates, who then go to a convention where they elect the president.

The third model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people elect political parties, and the parties that are victorious then go ahead to form governments – which includes selecting presidents. So, under this scheme, if you want to become a president, you just position yourself strategically in the party, and if the party wins, you become president.

How Political Parties Can Help in Streamlining National Elections

Political parties can play a crucial role in streamlining national elections.

The first way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by carrying out credible nominations. This is important, because what happens at nominations has an impact on the choice voters end up with on the actual elections days: for, with the exception of independent candidates, all other candidates have to be nominated by their parties. So if the parties nominate the wrong people, the voters end up having to make a choice between less-than-perfect candidates.

The second way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by vetting the candidates they plan to sponsor carefully.

The third way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by sponsoring candidates financially. This would entail giving full financial support to the candidates running on their tickets. That is as opposed to letting the candidates campaign with their own resources. Where there is no proper political party sponsorship, what we tend to end up with is a situation where the candidates end up getting sponsorship from rich businesspeople. Then, once they get into power, they champion the causes of those rich businesspeople, rather than the interests of the masses.

Things That Make Elections Chaotic in Certain Nations

There are certain nations in the world where elections tend to be very chaotic. People from the countries that are able to conduct orderly elections often wonder why elections in these other countries become chaotic. That is the question we venture to explore.

It emerges that the first thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is lack of civic education. So we often end up with people who are not properly educated on the workings of democracy being required to take part in democratic processes, often with nasty consequences. Doing so is akin to having a person who is not computer literate being told to make use of an app like, say, the www.gmail.com client for emails or the Gmail.com calendar or even something more complex like the Gmail task manager. Naturally, he is bound to make a mess of it: not because he is not intelligent, but because he is not trained for the task.

The second thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is lack of proper organization.

The third thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is corruption. The forces of corruption tend to be so vicious that they can’t stand the idea of genuine democracy, as they know that such democracy would expose them.

Features of Good Election Observers

It has become standard practice to enlist the help of election observers, who at the end of elections, are expected to give their verdicts on whether or not the elections were ‘free and fair’. Good election observers are expected to have certain characteristics.

Firstly, good election observers are expected to be credible folks.

Secondly, good election observers are expected to be well informed folks. The idea is to avoid a situation where, for instance, an observer sees an agent using his or her laptop to send a www.ymail.com draft (that being what may have previously been created and stored in the drafts Ymail.com folder) only to start suspecting that electoral malpractice is taking place! You need an observer who is able to differentiate between an electronic voting platform (that can indeed be used for rigging) from an innocent Ymail template) that, in this case, would be used by the agents to communicate with their candidates about their prospects.

Thirdly, good election observers are expected to be good communicators.

Finally, good election observers are expected to be neutral.

Things to Focus On When Carrying Out Civic Education Before an Election

You need to focus on certain things when carrying out civic education before an election.

Firstly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the education to understand the factors they should consider when selecting candidates. Otherwise you may have people voting on the basis of how handsome or beautiful the various candidates look, with the end result being the election of very poor candidates.

Secondly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the civic education to understand how to actually take part in the election. You first have to get them to see the need to take part in this sort of exercise. That can be tricky, especially when dealing with struggling people who are specifically involved in a game of daily survival, and who don’t care much about social inclusion through things like the democratic process.

Thirdly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the civic education to understand how to protect their vote. This is the way to prevent electoral malpractices, and it can be very challenging, given the fact that governments often see the need to rig elections for attainment of certain strategic objectives in national interest.

Measures You Can Take to Ensure That a National Election Goes Smoothly

Getting a national election to go smoothly is not easy. There are, nonetheless, certain measures you can take, to – at the very least – enhance chances of that sort of exercise going smoothly.

Firstly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to carry out adequate civic education.

Secondly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to get the political parties to sign up to a code of conduct.

Thirdly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to put in place good systems for every aspect of the exercise: from voter registration to the actual voting and onto vote tallying as well as transmission of the results.

Fourthly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to enlist the help of security agencies. These can help you with intelligence, in case plans to mar the exercise are made in some corner. The security agencies can also help you secure the materials to be used in the exercise, to avoid a situation where goons come and take the ballot boxes or where goons interfere with vote counting. The security agencies can, in a nutshell, help you secure the people conducting the exercise, people taking part in the exercise, and the materials as well as tools used in the exercise.

Four Processes That Affect the Credibility of Any National Democratic Election

Certain processes tend to have a very huge effect on the credibility of any national democratic election.

The first process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the voter registration process. If this is not carried out in a transparent manner, we can end up with parallel registers. Then we can end up with people who are not authorized to vote actually voting. Or we can even end up with ‘ghost voters’ taking part in the exercise!

The second process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the party nomination process. If this is not done in the right way, people are likely to end up with very poor pools of candidates to select from. The nomination process can, however, get very tricky when certain parties get intelligence to suggest that their opponents are trying to infiltrate them (by sponsoring Trojan candidates to stand on their tickets).

The third process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the actual voting process.

The fourth process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the vote tallying process. This is where most problems tend to creep in, leading to the often cited maxim that the people who matter are not those who do the voting, but rather, those who do the counting.

Two Arrangements Under Which National Election Materials are Normally Procured

The procurement of national election materials can be a highly controversial affair. Ultimately, there are two arrangements under which national election materials are normally procured.

The first arrangement under which national election materials are normally procured is that which is referred to as open tendering. This is where the electoral body that needs the polling materials puts out adverts, announcing its requirements, and inviting vendors who are interested in supplying it to bid. The best bidders are then given the tenders to supply the polling materials. This is a transparent way of doing things. Unfortunately, this is a scheme that can be easily infiltrated, hence the need for a lot of caution. In the final analysis, the bid can end up being given not to the lowest bidder, but rather, to the bidder who gets the best clearance from the security agencies.

The second arrangement under which national election materials are normally procured is that which is referred to as government to government procurement. This is where a government that needs election materials gets in touch with another government that hosts companies that are involved in the manufacture of the election materials. The government in need of the election materials then does the procurement of the materials in a closed deal, without inviting interested vendors to also submit their tenders. Needless to say, this is a less than transparent manner of doing things.

Three Ways In Which Corrupt Elites Try to Influence Election Outcomes

Corrupt elites are always keen on influencing election outcomes, because, in many cases, their wealth turns out to be predicated on their ability to hold onto political power (especially if they can influence government behind the scenes, thus giving rise to crony capitalism).

The first way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by using propaganda to promote their preferred candidates: those being candidates they can easily manipulate. Sometimes, through the use of media the ordinary citizens are duped into believing that the elites’ candidates are actually ‘their’ candidates: leading to a situation where some members of the public are actually ready to die for candidates who, in fact, don’t have their best interests at heart.

The second way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by using money to bribe the voters (or to bribe support groups indirectly), so that their preferred candidates win. The elites operate on the maxim that everyone has a price, and that everyone has vulnerabilities that can be exploited to compromise him or her.

The third way in which corrupt elites try to influence election outcomes is by simply rigging them: when all the other ‘softer’ methods of promoting their preferred candidates fail.

Three Models Under Which Presidential Elections are Held

Presidential elections tend to be highly exciting affairs, especially in countries where presidents have real power (as opposed to countries where presidents only play ceremonial roles). It emerges that there are some three models under which presidential elections are held.

The first model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people vote directly for the president. Under this scheme, the presidential candidate with the highest number of votes becomes the winner and assumes office. To win the presidency under this model, you need to campaign intensely. You have to hold rallies. You have to go for town hall meetings. You even have to campaign online: like where, for instance, you use Gmail texts which are amongst the new www.gmail.com features (assuming that you have a verified Gmail.com account), to communicate with your target political audience.

The second model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people elect delegates, who then go to a convention where they elect the president.

The third model under which presidential elections are held is the one where people elect political parties, and the parties that are victorious then go ahead to form governments – which includes selecting presidents. So, under this scheme, if you want to become a president, you just position yourself strategically in the party, and if the party wins, you become president.

How Political Parties Can Help in Streamlining National Elections

Political parties can play a crucial role in streamlining national elections.

The first way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by carrying out credible nominations. This is important, because what happens at nominations has an impact on the choice voters end up with on the actual elections days: for, with the exception of independent candidates, all other candidates have to be nominated by their parties. So if the parties nominate the wrong people, the voters end up having to make a choice between less-than-perfect candidates.

The second way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by vetting the candidates they plan to sponsor carefully.

The third way in which political parties can help in streamlining national elections would be by sponsoring candidates financially. This would entail giving full financial support to the candidates running on their tickets. That is as opposed to letting the candidates campaign with their own resources. Where there is no proper political party sponsorship, what we tend to end up with is a situation where the candidates end up getting sponsorship from rich businesspeople. Then, once they get into power, they champion the causes of those rich businesspeople, rather than the interests of the masses.

Things That Make Elections Chaotic in Certain Nations

There are certain nations in the world where elections tend to be very chaotic. People from the countries that are able to conduct orderly elections often wonder why elections in these other countries become chaotic. That is the question we venture to explore.

It emerges that the first thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is lack of civic education. So we often end up with people who are not properly educated on the workings of democracy being required to take part in democratic processes, often with nasty consequences. Doing so is akin to having a person who is not computer literate being told to make use of an app like, say, the www.gmail.com client for emails or the Gmail.com calendar or even something more complex like the Gmail task manager. Naturally, he is bound to make a mess of it: not because he is not intelligent, but because he is not trained for the task.

The second thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is lack of proper organization.

The third thing that makes elections chaotic in certain nations is corruption. The forces of corruption tend to be so vicious that they can’t stand the idea of genuine democracy, as they know that such democracy would expose them.

Features of Good Election Observers

It has become standard practice to enlist the help of election observers, who at the end of elections, are expected to give their verdicts on whether or not the elections were ‘free and fair’. Good election observers are expected to have certain characteristics.

Firstly, good election observers are expected to be credible folks.

Secondly, good election observers are expected to be well informed folks. The idea is to avoid a situation where, for instance, an observer sees an agent using his or her laptop to send a www.ymail.com draft (that being what may have previously been created and stored in the drafts Ymail.com folder) only to start suspecting that electoral malpractice is taking place! You need an observer who is able to differentiate between an electronic voting platform (that can indeed be used for rigging) from an innocent Ymail template) that, in this case, would be used by the agents to communicate with their candidates about their prospects.

Thirdly, good election observers are expected to be good communicators.

Finally, good election observers are expected to be neutral.

Things to Focus On When Carrying Out Civic Education Before an Election

You need to focus on certain things when carrying out civic education before an election.

Firstly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the education to understand the factors they should consider when selecting candidates. Otherwise you may have people voting on the basis of how handsome or beautiful the various candidates look, with the end result being the election of very poor candidates.

Secondly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the civic education to understand how to actually take part in the election. You first have to get them to see the need to take part in this sort of exercise. That can be tricky, especially when dealing with struggling people who are specifically involved in a game of daily survival, and who don’t care much about social inclusion through things like the democratic process.

Thirdly, when carrying out civic education before an election, you need to focus on getting the recipients of the civic education to understand how to protect their vote. This is the way to prevent electoral malpractices, and it can be very challenging, given the fact that governments often see the need to rig elections for attainment of certain strategic objectives in national interest.

Measures You Can Take to Ensure That a National Election Goes Smoothly

Getting a national election to go smoothly is not easy. There are, nonetheless, certain measures you can take, to – at the very least – enhance chances of that sort of exercise going smoothly.

Firstly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to carry out adequate civic education.

Secondly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to get the political parties to sign up to a code of conduct.

Thirdly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to put in place good systems for every aspect of the exercise: from voter registration to the actual voting and onto vote tallying as well as transmission of the results.

Fourthly, to get a national election to go smoothly, you need to enlist the help of security agencies. These can help you with intelligence, in case plans to mar the exercise are made in some corner. The security agencies can also help you secure the materials to be used in the exercise, to avoid a situation where goons come and take the ballot boxes or where goons interfere with vote counting. The security agencies can, in a nutshell, help you secure the people conducting the exercise, people taking part in the exercise, and the materials as well as tools used in the exercise.

Four Processes That Affect the Credibility of Any National Democratic Election

Certain processes tend to have a very huge effect on the credibility of any national democratic election.

The first process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the voter registration process. If this is not carried out in a transparent manner, we can end up with parallel registers. Then we can end up with people who are not authorized to vote actually voting. Or we can even end up with ‘ghost voters’ taking part in the exercise!

The second process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the party nomination process. If this is not done in the right way, people are likely to end up with very poor pools of candidates to select from. The nomination process can, however, get very tricky when certain parties get intelligence to suggest that their opponents are trying to infiltrate them (by sponsoring Trojan candidates to stand on their tickets).

The third process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the actual voting process.

The fourth process that affects the credibility of any national democratic election is the vote tallying process. This is where most problems tend to creep in, leading to the often cited maxim that the people who matter are not those who do the voting, but rather, those who do the counting.